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History Of Kashmir Confilict: 1846-1948

published March 15, 2009 by suhail Dar

History of Kashmir Conflict: 1846-1948
Kashmir has gone through a tumultuous history through its existence as it has passed from ruler to ruler and empire to empire. I would like to outline some of the most important aspects of the history of Kashmir that can better shed light on the current situation in the state today, history dating back all the way to 1846. Throughout this short exegesis on the history of Kashmir, I will be using the detailed and important work of Alastair Lamb’s Kashmir: A Disputed Legacy 1846-1990.
Lamb points out in the beginning of his work that after the fall of of the British empire in 1947 the two entities that were carved out in the subcontinent India and Pakistan would help and encourage each other to preserve a unified polity, one of Britain’s greatest achievements. Yet, through the course of the last six decades India and Pakistan have grown further apart and have specifically fought two wars over the claim of its territory, precisely the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
In 1947, the state of Jammu and Kashmir was among approximately 562 Indian princely states that constituted about one-third of the British empire. Kashmir was among those who enjoyed “full legislative and jurisdictional power” (4). They were separate from British India as their allegiance was directly to the British crown. With the fall of the British empire, the Princely states in India would in theory become independent, especially those states who enjoyed similar status to that of Jammu and Kashmir. The process for which accession was to take place was laid out in its fundamentals by 1947. Rulers of Princely states like Kashmir could sign an Instrument of Accession to a dominion who would take over the defense, foreign affairs, and communications. In 1947, the majority of states fell nicely into two “catchment” areas for which they would accede to, one being the state of Pakistan and the other India. Thus, the ruler of Jammu and Kashmir could accede to either India and Pakistan even though three quarters of his subjects were Muslim.
The state was the creation of a Dogra chief in the first half of the nineteenth century Gulab Singh. He had won the favor of Rajit Singh, a great Sikh ruler whose capital was Lahore. In 1820 Rajit Singh appointed Gulab Singh Raja of the State of Jammu from which he began to build his own empire, beginning in the 1830s by the conquest of Ladakh, and then in 1840 by acquiring Baltistan. Poonch also became a state of Gulab Singh’s younger brother Dhyan Singh, but as one can see the beginnings of distaste of foreign rule was apparent as the Muslims of Poonch did not take a liking to Dogra rule. As a result, there were several bloody rebellions which tested the power of the Dogra Rajas.
Because of the non-intervention of Gulab Singh during the first Anglo-Sikh war, the British granted the Vale of Kashmir as a token of appreciation, a region which had been conquered by the Sikhs from the Afghan rulers in 1819. In 1846, the Sikhs were encouraged to cede Kashmir to the English East India Company, yet the Governor-General Sir Henry Hardinge was reluctant to expand British influence in region of the Valley and therefore transferred it by the Treaty of Amritsar of March 16th, 1846 to the Ruler of Jammu for a mere sum of 7,500,000 rupees. The inhabitants of the valley resented this overtake by the Dogra ruler and in response he flayed alive those opposed him. The Vale of Kashmir was a center of tourism and a place where people of the subcontinent could take refuge from the heat and humidity. It also became known for its shawl industry woven from fine threads of pashm wool.
The Vale of Kashmir from its early onset comprised of Hindu and Sikh influence as it was the hub of Hindu culture up until the fourteenth century when Islamic power was established by Shah Mir who seized power in 1339. Numerous preachers visited Kashmir during this time including the most notable among them Persian Mir Syed Ali Hamadani or better known as Shah-i-Hamadan. In 1586, the Moghul Emperor Akbar claimed Kashmir as part of his empire until 1752 with the collapse of the Moghul dynasty. Power was then transferred to the Afghan warlord Ahmad Shah Durrani whose power was then usurped by the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh in 1819. The author would like to direct the reader’s attention to these significant historical happenings in the valley’s history, which can lend some insight into the sentiment of distaste of outside rule including the present day Indian governance of the state. This sentiment is embedded deep within the historical underpinnings of the region’s history dating back nearly 400 years.


After the acquisition of the valley by the Dogra ruler Gulab Singh, Kashmir underwent many transformations and expanded its influence in other regions surrounding it. This new polity was quite unprecedented in the history of the subcontinent as it constituted a range of ethnicities and religions. The original “heartland” of the region, Jammu, consisted predominantly of Hindu and Sikh in population and was dominated by the Dogras who claimed an ancestry of Rajouri descent. Kashmir, or technically the Vale of Kashmir, consisted almost entirely of Sunni Muslims with the exception of a very influential upper class of Kashmiri Brahmins, or otherwise known as the Pandits. They traced their lineage through prominent leaders of Indian history one of whom was Jawaharlal Nehru. The Vale of Kashmir had no traditional links with the people of Jammu during the 1940s or previously and therefore had their highly developed and advanced culture with a milieu of both Hindus and Muslims. The thinly populated Ladakh was at that time predominantly Tibetan Buddhist. Baltistan, now belonging to Pakistan’s Northern Areas, were also ethnically related to Tibet but belonged to the Twelver Shiah branch of Islam. The author cannot comment on the current proportional shifts that have taken place over the last 60 years as there is very little census data that has since been conducted in the state.
In every respect for the Muslim state subjects, they lead hard lives even under the grandson of Maharaja Hari Singh who ruled until 1947. An institution of begar, conscription of the public for public work activities, was enforced whose origin can be traced back to 1893. As historian Alastair Lamb explicitly says, “In every respect of the State’s life there was discrimination against the Muslim majority and application of legislation expressively designed to favor Hindus” (84). Such was the fear of Dogra rule that the slaughtering of a cow was forbidden up until 1934, but as the author can attest to a psychological apprehension of beef continues to exist to this day in the Vale of Kashmir.
At the time of the Maharaja, Hindu-Muslim relations were relatively amicable and Kashmiri Muslims were described as subservient and obedient to the Maharaja as the Dogra rulers had brutally suppressed all remnants of opposition. Nevertheless, beneath the calm there was a bitter resentment to Dogra rule and this began to take shape in political outbursts by the late 1920s. The author would like to mention the eerie similarity between this simmering discontent of the inhabitants of the Vale of Kashmir during the early 20th century, which was cloaked by apparent normalcy with the current situation in Kashmir and the unobtrusive normalcy beginning in 2004.
With this understanding of the discrimination taking place toward the Muslims of the region, a movement for the betterment of the Kashmiri Muslim began in 1905 by the then religious leader of the Muslims of Kashmir Maulvi Rasool Shah who founded in the capital Srinagar an association named Anjuman-i-Nusrat-ul-Islam with its business improving the condition of Kashmiri Muslims in fields of education and religion. It sent committees to meet with the state government to seek redress of grievances committed against the Muslims of Kashmir. As this laid precedent for establishment of institutions that sought improvement of welfare in the valley, other groups followed suit in the second and the third decades of the 20th century. Their political inclination took on a religious undertone and thus they dealt with issues concerning differences among Muslims and legitimacy of sects. With the educational dealings of these new Muslim associations, Muslims of Kashmir were able to explore institutions of higher learning outside in India and by the 1930s, the first graduates returned to Kashmir among of whom included Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah, Mirza Afzal Beg, and G.M. Sadiq, people and whose lineage would dominate Kashmiri politics for decades to come.
Though opposition was pent up in the Islamic universities in India, an event in 1931 would change this disunity to an organized opposition movement that present day Kashmiris mark as the moment of their resistance to foreign rule. Many events are noted to have taken place against Muslims during this year under the auspices of the Maharaja of Kashmir but one that is notably remembered occurred in early June 1931. It was reported in the Jammu province that the Maharaja’s government disrupted Muslim worship and desecrated the Holy Quran. As news of this reached the capital Srinagar citizens were enraged and massive processions and public meetings ensued. One such meeting occurred on June 25th, 1931 when a non-Kashmiri Abdul Qadeer, North-West Frontier region resident, made a fiery speech calling for an armed resistance to the Maharaja’s rule. He was immediately arrested and this provided the fuel for the ensuing protests and processions. On July 13th, 1931 the trial of Abdul Qadeer commenced outside the Gaol in Srinagar with a great assembly of Kashmiri Muslims taking place. The police resorted to baton charges and stones were thrown in response. Eventually, the police resorted to fire leading to the death of 23 demonstrators. This day became to known to Kashmiris as “Martyrs Day,” the official commencement of an independence struggle form foreign rule, which to this day continues. This crisis was dominated by two specific leaders, the religious leader Mirwaiz Mohammed Yusuf Shah and the other a young teacher who graduated from Aligarh Muslim University with a Msc Degree in Chemistry Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah.
The latter was from a family of Kashmiri Brahmins who converted to Islam in the early 18th century. His family was not of good means but was well-known among influential Kashmiris of that period, which eventually precipitated in his attainment of an education from Aligarh University. Along with Mirwaiz Mohammad Yusuf Shah of the Vale, they set up the most powerful political party to date through the establishment of the All Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Conference, which became a major source of opposition to the Maharaja. Other members of this party became Chaudhri Ghulam Abbas as wells Mirza Afzal Beg, G.M. Sadiq, and Bakshi Ghulam Mohammed. From the beginning, the party suffered internal discord, a fact arising from the growing secular ideology of Sheikh Abdullah. By 1941, the parties earliest proponents left and allied with Mohammad Ali Jinnah’s Muslim League in British India, among which included Mirwaiz Mohammad Yusuf Shah and Chaudhri Ghulam Abbas. As the party would soon be renamed the National Conference, it began the “Quit Kashmir” campaign against the Dogra rule. As thus was the case, it boycotted the January 1947 Legislative Assembly elections resulting in the overwhelming victory of the Muslim Conference who then later passed a resolution on July 19th, 1947 advocating the accession of the state to Pakistan.
By this time, Jawaharlal Nehru became a close associate of Sheikh Abdullah and even visited him when the Maharaja imprisoned him in Srinagar. The former saw in Sheikh Abdullah the same vision of a secular, independent India uniting all the territory under the former British empire. It was in 1936 and later in 1944 that the founder of Pakistan, Mohammad Ali Jinnah came to Srinagar to investigate the political differences between the Muslim and National Conference and failing to find any common ground outwardly disapproved of the National Conference’s secularism. He claimed only the Muslim Conference represented the true Muslim majority of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Though he viewed direct involvement in state as unconstitutional unlike his Indian counterpart Jawaharlal Nehru, he firmly believed the Muslim Conference garnered the support of the majority of Muslims in the Vale of Kashmir.
As August 15th, 1947 came and went the Maharaja failed to accede either to India or Pakistan thereby making it an independent state with a life of its own, never minding that further complicated the issue of Jammu and Kashmir for the next six decades. On August 12th, 1947 the new Prime Minister Janak Singh proposed to both India and Pakistan a Standstill Agreement allowing the state of Jammu and Kashmir to continue trade and communication with its two new neighbors while still making up its mind. However, India balked at such an agreement and stated on official from the state must be sent to New Delhi before anything further could take place, a caveat that never was fulfilled. As a result, India rejected the claim advocated by Lord Mountbatten and thus was entering unchartered waters in its foreign policy since independence.
As 1947 was drawing to a close, the attitude of the Maharaja toward accession changed markedly as he was neither happy of acceding to India or Pakistan as in the latter case he thought he had no chance of remaining ruler of the state. Nevertheless, he favored the idea of independence but with an increase in mass resentment against his rule, he concluded the help of India would be needed with the price being accession. On October 21st, 1947 a growing sense that the India army would invade Kashmir after the state’s accession prompted Kashmiris in the Muzaffarabad region to dash from the state border to Srinagar. The arrival of Patiala troops in the state also contributed to this sense of urgency on the other side of the border, very much so in the Poonch region as they were sympathizers of the Kashmiri people and their subjugation during Dogra rule. As would be later called by Indian Intelligence officers, “Operation Gulmarg” became apparent on the night of the 21st of October 1947 in the Domel-Muzaffarabad area. Taking the Dogras buy surprise who were guarding the bridge that crossed the Jhelum river and lead to Srinagar, the Poonch men killed the majority of the Dogra army in the early hours of October 22nd, 1947, representing an act of rebellion against the rule of the Maharaja. With the road now clear and the primary objective the taking of the capital Srinagar in clear view, victory was nearly in the hands of the Poonch men had they a few armored cars which would have been necessary in taking of the key Srinagar airfield. The governor of Jammu and Kashmir came to New Delhi on the next day October 23rd, 1947 and the next day asked Jawaharlal Nehru for Indian help in the form of men, ammunition, and arms. He carried with the order of accession of the Maharaja to India but did not show it to him, while the the latter hoped that any concession of accession to India would not harm his desire for independence. On that same day, the Poonch rebels declared their independence from the Maharaja rule in the form of Azad Kashmir. With the then Prime Minister of the state of Jammu and Kashmir worried about what would ensue, he rushed to New Delhi persuading Nehru to intervene in this precarious situation for the Maharaja for which in return he would accept Sheikh Abdullah as the head of the state. Thereafter, on the morning of October 27th, 1947 an airlift of Indian soldiers to Srinagar took place just in time to take hold of the Kashmir airfield and to set the form of the Kashmir dispute, which has remained ever since. As Alastair Lamb points out and is a key centrality to the dispute of Kashmir, if Mahajan’s (one of the men who was sent to attain the signature of accession by the Maharaja in the days leading up to October 27th, 1947) “account of his travels is true, and he was quite emphatic that he refused to return to the State until Srinagar airfield was firmly in Indian hands (reflecting both the Maharaja’s determination that Indian assistance should physically arrive before he finally committed himself to handing power to Sheikh Abdullah….) then it would appear that the Indian intervention actually took place before the formalities of Accession had been completed” (136).
Nevertheless, with the influence of Mountbatten, Nehru proclaimed on November 2nd, 1947 on All India Radio that “we have declared that the fate of Kashmir is ultimately to be decided by the people, that pledge we have given”, which “we will not, and cannot back out of”, and that “we are prepared when and law and order have been established to have a referendum held under international auspices like the United Nations” (138). The United States Department of State also issued a stance on Kashmir in a paper to the General Assembly of the United Nations on December 2nd, 1947. It said that:
the Dominion of India may attempt to establish the extant electoral rolls as the basis for the  referendum. As these rolls are said to contain less than 7% of the population and were compiled  on a basis which served to weight the members of the wealthier educated Hindu minority who  would obviously vote for accession to India, it is important that the electoral body should in fact  be composed on a basis of complete adult suffrage in order that the result of the referendum  may be representative of the actual wishes of the people of Kashmir.

Following the 1948 war between India and Pakistan over the issue of Kashmir, the United Nations took a more proactive approach and laid the foundation for the demand of Kashmiris through the last six decades. As a UN brokered ceasefire called for a plebiscite in the region that never took place, relations between Pakistan and India thereafter soured. However, in its most landmark statement through Resolution 47 passed on April 21st, 1948, the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan (UNCIP) called for a committee of five members to investigate the territorial dispute of Kashmir and made specific recommendations to both sides. Pakistan was to arrange the withdrawal of all its troops who were citizens of the country of Pakistan while India was to withdraw its troops to a level that would be need to maintain law and order. Refugees were to be allowed to return and political prisoners were to be set free. The UN would then appoint a Plebiscite Administrator with sufficient powers to ascertain the wishes of the people of the State of Jammu and Kashmir. When the UNCIP committee reached the subcontinent in July 1948, it produced a plan of action on August 13th, 1948, which called for an immediate ceasefire and the opening of negotiations, involving the withdrawal of Pathan tribesmen and other Pakistani nationals. It was then to be followed by the withdrawal of the bulk of Indian forces. Once this truce was signed, the arrangements for a plebiscite could then be worked out.
As the author has somewhat futilely attempted to summarize the root cause of the conflict in Kashmir for the last six decades, he would like to point out that the years following the passage of this landmark UN resolution yielded no advancement in the solution of Kashmir and therefore does not add to the discussion of presenting the problem of Kashmir. He would like to again direct the reader to the monumental book on the history of the Kashmir conflict as mentioned in the opening paragraph and for which this paper’s foundations rests upon. Though the ensuing 60 years following 1948 have seen three more wars between India and Pakistan and an armed revolt that began in 1989 against Indian rule (leading to the death of nearly 100,000 civilians at the hands of the Indian army), these have only been espoused due to the events of 1947 and 1948 for which the right to self-determination of Kashmiris rests upon. To this day, and in the current second uprising currently taking place in the Vale of Kashmir, the call of the subjects of Kashmir is for imposition of the UN plebiscite that was alluded to by both Nehru, the United States, and the UN. Therefore, it appears to the reader and Alastair Lamb that the situation and environment in Kashmir will only be ameliorated through state referendum, allowing the people of the state to decide their future. The reader hopes that this article brings to light the problems that have faced Kashmiris and continue to face Kashmiris to this very day.


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    Dossier on Indian interference finalised Soon after assuming office incoming UN Secretary General Antonio Guterres will get a feel of Pak-India rivalry as Islamabad is set to raise the issue of Indian interference with him. A dossier on captured Indian spy Kulbhushan Jadhav and evidence of attempted violation of maritime boundary by an Indian submarine will be handed over by Pakistan’s permanent representative to the United Nations Dr Maleeha Lodhi on Monday (Jan 2) to Mr Guterres on his first working day at the UN headquarters in New York, officials said here. Jadhav, a serving Indian navy officer and an operative of India’s intelligence agency Research and Analysis Wing (RAW), was caught by Pakistani security forces earlier this year. His capture was announced in March and was flaunted by military as “proof of Indian interference and state-sponsored terrorism”. Editorial: The spy affair In his recorded confessional statement, Jadhav accepted that he had been assigned by RAW to promote unrest in Balochistan and Karachi and had been working with the Baloch student organisations and insurgents and terrorist groups for the purpose. Evidence about Kulbhushan, Indian sub’s intrusion attempt to be given to UN on Monday The government, which had pledged to internationally expose Indian hand in terrorism at home, domestically faced a lot of criticism for the delay in presenting to the international community evidence of Jadhav’s involvement in subversive activities. Responding to criticism in the Senate, Adviser on Foreign Affairs Sartaj Aziz had on Dec 7 said that “insufficient material” had been delaying the finalisation of the dossier. “It is not that material has been provided and it’s lacking in English and we are overcoming it. The (provided) material, in our view, was insufficient,” Mr Aziz told a meeting of the Senate Committee of the Whole House. The officials said on Friday that “the required additional information” has now been made available and the dossier has been completed. They did not share the specifics, but said it would contain proofs that India was patronising terrorism in Pakistan. The new UN chief would also be informed about the attempt by an Indian submarine to intrude into Pakistani waters before it was spotted and forced to abandon the mission. Pakistan Navy while announcing its success in thwarting the Indian submarine’s infiltration bid had said that Indian Navy had “deceitfully deployed its submarines against Pakistan with ulterior motives”. The submarine incident, which happened last month, coincided with the fourth Pak-China joint naval exercise for promoting maritime security and stability in the region and the start of shipping activity under the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor from Gwadar. Ambassador Lodhi had earlier in October 2015 presented three dossiers to the then secretary general Ban Ki-moon, which were said to be containing proofs of Indian interference in Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Karachi. But, the move did not get much traction. When the attention of the officials was invited to the “credibility deficit” that Pakistan internationally faces, they expressed the hope that the UN would look into the fresh evidence that would be placed before it. Published in Dawn December 31st, 2016
  • Profile picture of Tasaduq Nakash Shafaq Shah On: 2016-12-12 04:06:55
    Whither the probes?On the night of August 2, an ATM guard was killed on way to his home and his body was found thrown at the gate of Government Medical College, Srinagar. On August 17, a lecturer from Sharshali, Khrew Pampore was dragged from his home and beaten to death in custody. On the afternoon of August 18, government forces emptied pellet cartridge in the left arm of an ambulance driver. On October 7, a 7th standard student was killed at the entrance of his house while seeing off his aunt. Despite murder cases being registered and inquires being ordered by Chief Minister, Mehbooba Mufti in all these cases, the perpetrators are yet to be punished. SHABIR AHMAD MANGOO When Shabir was dragged from his home by army men, a pen from his hand fell on the verandah of his house. His 28-year-old widow, Yasmeena has kept the pen hidden in the almirah so that one day his son will write with his father’s pen. “We had not even completed three years of marriage and these brute Indian forces snatched my husband from me. What will I do now? What will I tell my one-and–half old son, where his father is,” says Yasmeena. She often sits in the room where Shabir last sat, feeling the absence of her “best friend”. “For days and nights he would sit in this room and prepare for National Eligibility Test. He was studying hard to qualify it this year. I would then request him to come out of the room for few minutes and go out for a stroll,” says Yasmeena, who randomly picks one of the many books Shabir would often read. Recalling the fateful day, Shabir’s sister Masrat says: “In the afternoon of August 17, there were protests going on afternoon in our village, but my brother was home, studying in his room. He was so engrossed in studies that he was least bothered about the outside world.” At 10:30 on that night, Masrat says: “Army men barged into our house, smashed the window panes of my younger brother’s sumo cab and dragged me by my hair. Shabir was inside, but after hearing the noise he came out and the army men took him along. They didn’t even give him time to wear shirt and dragged him out in his undershirt.” Yasmeena had gone to his parents’ house in Tral on the day of the incident, but a phone call from Masrat late in the night made her come back early morning. “With me came the body of my husband who had been beaten to death by the Indian forces. His arms, back, legs and chest all had been turned blue and purple by the forces,” says Yasmeena. At 6 in the morning, the family lodged an FIR against the Army men under Section 302 (murder) and 307 (attempt to murder) at police station Sharshali, Khrew. Four months after his death, Shabir’s family says, “The investigation is yet to be started in the case. Journalists and activists are the only people who have visited our house. No police official came to our home to even record our statement. ” “To settle scores with the family,” Masrat says, “The Commanding officer of Army at the local camp who had came to our house with his men called my father couple of weeks after the death and offered money and asked him to withdraw the case against him. But my father refused.” Shabir, a lecturer at Amar Singh College, lost his mother at a young age. His father took care of Shabir and his siblings. Among the siblings, Shabir studied the most and earned a job in Amar Singh College as lecturer in English. “My younger brother is a sumo driver, father is a labourer so Shabir was the only person who was taking care of the needs of the family. Now who will take care of us,” asks Masrat. “In television interviews Mehbooba Mufti says the death of the lecturer should be probed. But did she say it only to shut our mouths? Did she try to know where the investigation has reached? These all are tactics of politicians to fool people. I know how it works here and that’s why I am sad that I cannot even punish the killers of my husband,” Yasmeena says. RIYAZ AHMAD SHAH Walking through the lanes and by-lanes in Chattabal, Riyaz seems to have become a revered name. While asking people the way to Riyaz’s home- an ATM guard who was killed by the forces on way to home- smilingly say: “Martyr is live in heart, but still if you want to know the address, ask anyone on road he will guide to his home. He is our hero.” Riyaz’s house looks deceiving from outside, but inside it is properly furnished. “He was very hard working. In the daytime he would work as a salesman in Jamia Market and nights he would works as a guard in an ATM counter in Kanikadal. He would spend hard earned money on this house,” says Riyaz’s sister-in-law. “We are not able to find the culprit of my mamu, it’s been four months. And we don’t expect that he will ever be caught,” says Hina Jan, Riyaz’s niece, who says she was closet to him of all his nieces. Hina, a 10th standard dropout, explains how Riyaz was killed by forces. “He came to my home in Batamaloo in the morning, took shower, had tea and left. He had to arrange a SIM card for one of our neighbors. After spending time with us, he left for Fateh Kadal where his brother lives and in the evening again came to our home. So he was quite busy for half of the day.” “At 8 in the evening,” Hina recalls, “He left for the ATM. At 10 in the night, his brother called him and asked to come home, as they were waiting for him for dinner. Riyaz asked to wait for couple of minutes as he was on way. Two minutes passed, the brother again called, and he said he is coming in a minute. And when one minute also passed, the brother again called, but he didn’t answer the call.” Hina who is staying at Riyaz’s place since the day he died says, “An hour later, we received a call from Riyaz’s number and some people asked us to immediately reach GMC and asked us to get a female along. And when we saw Riyaz mamu’s body thrown near the gate of GMC, we all went in a state of shock. We are yet to come to terms with the reality.” Police initially claimed that Riyaz had been stabbed, but the autopsy confirmed multiple pellet injuries as the cause of death. Following the autopsy report, the family registered an FIR in Karan Nagar police station. And till this date, nothing has been done to book the culprits. “Nothing has happened since we lodged an FIR. We are yet to know who killed my brother,” says Shakeel Ahmad, Riyaz’s brother. JUNAID AHMAD AKHOON Just a day after Junaid Akhoon was killed by government forces at the entrance of his house in Eidgah area of Srinagar, the government called for a probe. But two months after his death, the probe in the case is yet to be initiated. “The probe was just a hoax to calm down the people who had taken to streets after the death of my brother. And what will the government probe? It is they who have given these pellet guns to the forces and asked them to use it. They just follow the orders of their bosses,” says Iqra, Junaid’s sister. Junaid, a 7th standard student, was seeing off his aunt, who had come to see him. “He was enjoying the day with the nieces and then left for prayers. An hour later he went out with his mother to see off our aunt and was shot dead by forces,” says Iqra. The family rushed Junaid to SKIMS Soura, but because of severe blood loss, he succumbed to his injury late in the night. In the morning when people were preparing for the funeral of Junaid, police fired teargas canisters and pellets on the funeral procession. The killing evoked widespread condemnation from political parties who demanded a time bound probe. “Two constables had come to our place in the first week of November and asked us to give details about the killing. We gave them the firsthand account. But nothing happened after that, and nothing will,” says Iqra. Inspector General of Police, SJM Gillani maintained that investigations are going on in these cases. GHULAM MOHAMMAD SOFI Ambulance driver, Ghulam Mohammad Sofi was ferrying patients to SMHS hospital when CRPF personnel fired 365 pellets in his left arm near Safa Kadal. “The doctors say, 100 pellets are still in my arm which needs to be taken out,” says Sofi. With pellets lodged in his arm, Sofi drove the ambulance with his injured hand and reached SMHS hospital where the volunteers rushed him to emergency ward. “The ambulance drivers have been working in the line of fire since the uprising started, but that say I had a smooth passage. No police official stopped me. But at Eidgah, a CRPF man was sitting alone and he looked angry. He asked me to stop, I did and he aimed the pellet gun straight into my face, I hid my face with my hand and he fired the pellet in my arm,” Sofi says. The CRPF man was suspended and a departmental inquiry was initiated, which as of yet has not been completed. Inspector General of CRPF, Atul Karwal said, “The local police will be doing the investigation now, they were too busy in controlling the situation. As far as the departmental inquiry is concerned we need the reports from local police, then only can we close the inquiry.”
  • Profile picture of Tasaduq Nakash Tear gas shell kills downtown youth death toll rises to 69 • authorities enforce stringent day-night curfew in valley • protests, clashes at many places; over 100 sustain injuries _ kashmir awareness operation praying mantis | A job cost sheet include On: 2016-12-06 06:32:59
    […] Working girl quotes We betrayed people of Kashmir from time to time and it is an fact now Kashmiri people have lost all sorts of trust and faith in India,” Wajahat Habibullah told Kashmir based news agency CNS and added that Kashmir is a big blot on the Indian political system. Site:… […]
  • Profile picture of Tasaduq Nakash javeed On: 2016-11-27 03:44:39
    A Kashmiri student was allegedly beaten by his non-Kashmiri college mates in Kharar Mohali in Chandigarh on Friday when he was heading towards his college. Reports said that the student, identified as Haris Shakeel Khan, son of Shakeel of Khan resident of Kadipora Anantnag, was waylaid by the assailants after he left for his college, DOABA group of colleges located at Kharar Chandigarh. He was taken to Civil hospital Kharar for treatment where from he was referred to Govt hospital Chandigarh for further treatment. Reports said that Khan received injuries in his head and backbone and is undergoing treatment at the hospital. “I was proceeding towards the examination centre where I had to appear in Environmental Engineering paper of B. Tech 5th semester. About 15 to 20 students started thrashing me without saying a single word. I received many injuries due to which I could not appear in my examination," he said. Khan alleged that he was beaten because of his Kashmiri identity. “We are being threatened, beaten for no reason. Our only problem is that we are Kashmiri. We appeal to the JK Government to intervene into the matter to end our sufferings.”
  • Profile picture of Tasaduq Nakash muzaffar mir On: 2016-11-12 03:09:27
    Malik shifted to Central jail on remand up to JKLF Condemns house arrest of Geelani, Mirwaiz;Meanwhile, terming re-arresting of Malik and other separatist leaders as worst kind of dictatorship under the disguise of democracy, JKLF vice chairman Mushtaq Ahmad Ajmal said that curbing peaceful voice of people by arrests, nocturnal raids, curfew and restrictions cannot be termed but as worst dictatorship and choking space on peaceful activities actually amounts to denying democracy and freedom of speech. While condemning the house arrest of veteran leader Syed Ali Shah Geelani and Mirwaiz Mohammad Umar Farooq and disallowing Friday prayers at Jamia Masjid Srinagar, Ajmal said the tall claims of democracy and battle of ideas have been exposed now as from last four months even Friday prayers at Jamia Masjid have been banned by ‘so-called democratic rulers’.
  • Profile picture of Tasaduq Nakash waseem qadir On: 2016-11-04 20:41:18
    BOSE Chair Zahoor Ahmad Chatt daugther should have received pellet in her eyes,then we would like how he would conduct exam for his blind children.shame on there indian agents.
  • Profile picture of Tasaduq Nakash Inamsa On: 2016-11-01 02:45:14
    Hurriyat Conference (M) on Monday criticized the former chief minister Omar Abdullah for showing concern over the future of Kashmiri children as “few years ago, he (Omar) didn’t hesitate facilitating the killing of 120 youngsters”.
  • Profile picture of Tasaduq Nakash MAZLOOM On: 2016-10-24 00:00:39
    A recent statement by Narinder Modi of India that he followed Israely MO about carrying out disputed and dubious so called surgical strikes against Azad Kashmir demonstrates the collaboration of the Jewish establishment and the Nazi RSS of India. India needs to learn that with all the oppressive measures Israel has undertaken it has failed to suppress the flame of freedom of occupied Palestinians and India will end up destroying itself in the process of occupation, brutal oppression and scorch earth policy in occupied Jammu and Kashmir. India is trying every possible means it can muster and even her quislings to fool the world regarding it`s genocidal brutalities the rouge and subhuman Indian occupation forces are involved against the people of Jammu and Kashmir. Omar Abdullah who comes from the foremost collaborator and quisling families has been directed by his Indian masters these days to try cover up the facts regarding Indian draconian human rights violation in occupied Jammu and Kashmir. It is the same Omar Abdullah who a while ago was shedding crocodile tears regarding the genocide the Indian government and it`s occupation forces are involved in the occupied land of Jammu and Kashmir. This man`s grand father not only sold his soul for few Indian pennies but subjugated his nation for personal and his family`s material benefit. The quisling family of Omar Abdullah is squarely responsible as to what is going on In Jammu and Kashmir. We all need to recognize and understand this and counter this man`s lies he is selling as a puppet of RSS of India. We need to identify these Indian collaborators and let not only our nation but whole world know that individuals and groups like this man are ready to sell their soul any time for a penny. This man was in charge of puppet set up of India in Jammu and Kashmir in 2010 and he introduced the pellet gun used by the rouge Indian occupation forces then and now resulting in deaths and the loss of vision of more the 1000 innocent human beings so far. He needs to be confronted with the fact that he and his infamous family can not keep on fooling the people in occupied land and in the world and if he has any decency left in him that he should try to redeem himself.
  • Profile picture of Tasaduq Nakash Muzaffar Ahamad On: 2016-10-23 23:42:16
    Yasin Malik severely ill: JKLF ‘Appeals people to pray for his speedy recovery’
  • Profile picture of Tasaduq Nakash Muneer shayir On: 2016-10-20 02:52:56
    A pellet victim’s plea to CM: ‘Bring back my vision, will appear in exams’,Another victim’s mother slams govt for ‘enacting exam drama to show normalcy’
  • Profile picture of Tasaduq Nakash TNN On: 2016-10-18 02:47:07
    At Brics, Russian silence on Pak terror stuns India.China blocked India's attempts to name JeM and LeT in the Goa Declaration, wherein the Brics member states pledged to "relentlessly pursue" outfits designated terrorist groups by the UNSC, but what has hurt the government more, sources said, is Russia's disinclination to argue India's case. The result, of course, was a declaration which failed to address India's core concern, or the issue of state-sponsored terrorism. What compounded the matter for India was Russia's recent military flirtation with Pakistan in the form of an anti-terror exercise. In current global power play, Russia is increasingly seen as needing China more than the other way round, but Moscow's submission to Beijing's position on an issue related to India's security has still come as a revelation to New Delhi. While Russia did not help India name-check JeM, which perpetrated both the Pathankot and Uri attacks, in the declaration, it ensured that Syria-based Jabhat al-Nusra was. As it seeks to bolster the Bashar al-Assad regime, Russia has continued to target al-Nusra, which it accuses of pursuing, through barbaric methods, a caliphate in Syria. Al-Nusra is among the groups fighting to topple al-Assad. Like Nusra, JeM and LeT too are proscribed by the UN. Strategic affairs expert Brahma Chellaney said Moscow appeared willing to accommodate India's concerns, but, in the face of Chinese opposition, shied away. "The result was that the declaration failed to mention the most potent form of terrorism in the world, which is state-sponsored," he added. With Russia doing precious little for India, China has managed to shield Pakistani terrorism not only at the UN Security Council but also at a multilateral summit on Indian soil. In doing so, Chellaney said, China rode roughshod over Indian concerns and showed itself culpable in the killing of 26 Indian soldiers at Uri and Pathankot. Top Comment Ultimately everything boils down to economic prowess of India. Political strength is a function of economic power. There can never be a short cut to gain edge in international political circuit. Indi... Read More Sangeet Kumar SEE ALL COMMENTSADD COMMENT While Russia itself has been the clear winner in terms of Brics' focus on security-related issues, China continues to calls the shots on financial issues, leading to questions about the utility of Brics for India. "China uses Brics to advance its economic and political interests, including dominating the two financial mechanisms that the grouping has set up. But what does India get from Brics?" Chellaney said. "Goa showed that while China manages to get its own way, even at India's expense, Indian officials do little other than put on a brave face. Even earlier, when China secured the right to host the Brics bank, Indian officials were left flaunting a consolation prize — that an Indian would be the bank's first president," he added. The Goa Declaration came just a day after President Vladimir Putin assured PM Narendra Modi that Russia would do nothing to hurt India's interests. But, as MEA secretary Amar Sinha admitted, there was no consensus on naming Pakistan-based terror groups because other nations are not affected by their actions. Stay updated on the go with Times of India News App. Click here to download it for your device.
  • Profile picture of Tasaduq Nakash ikhlas Lone On: 2016-10-10 01:42:02
    Ikhlas Lone 11 hrs · Riyadh, Saudi Arabia · Examination Cancellation Application To: - Uncle Nayeem Akhtar -Education minster Government of J&K From: - Junaid Ahmad Akhoon -SaidPora Srinagar, J&K. Subject: - Cancellation of my Examination. Dear uncle, I want to bring this into your notice that I (Junaid Ahmad Akhoon, Student of Class 7th, Roll number 29, New Bonvivant English School Srinagar) may not be able to Sit in Annual-2016 Examination which you Scheduled to conduct in the Month of November 2016.Because of the reason that I have already traveled very far from you. I was near my Gate when a “friendly looking Police Uncle” came closer to me and shot a pellet towards me. I am pretty sure that it was a mistake as he may have perceived me a wanted stone thrower which I wasn’t. I have no complains to that Police Uncle. My neighbors tried to furry my injured body to hospital but I shortly breathed my last. Though some Doctor Uncle’s tried to put my Dead Body on Ventilator, but my attendants saved me from that torture. Please delete my all old records & results and not to issue any roll no. slip/Result under my name to my family, As we have seen in case of “Shaista Hamid of Lelhar Pulwama”- Who was Declared pass after 2 month of her death. I am grateful to you that you have sent me to a place where my teacher namely “Shabir Ahmed Monga” of Pampore is already there. Now I have plenty of time to study under him and learn the language of Reasoning and Critical thinking. I am also thankful to you for letting me meet my Childhood Friend “Faizan Buhroo of Old Town Varmul” who was caught, Beaten & thrown into River Jhelum from Azad Gunj Bridge Varmul. We will have great time together and roam the streets of heavens without the fear of being killed/Blinded or maimed. Please convey my message to “Mehbooba Aunty” not to come over my Grave. I can’t listen her saying “Aap Mujse Naraaz Tu Nahi” for that matter “Mai Unse Naraaz Nahi Hun”. I am Sorry to Shah Faesal Uncle that I couldn’t be a part of his campaign on where he initiated giving books and other stuff to blind children. Though they may have any plan to blind me but the sober policeman uncle killed me instead. I am personally thankful to that policeman uncle who killed me rather than blinding me. And releasing the burden of my parents from “raising a Blind Child than Mourning a Dead Child” As I see the pain of parents of Aamir Kabir Beigh of Old town Varmul who was blinded for buying the medicines for his mother. Please don’t harass my father I will convenience him not to file any report or FIR. I hope you’ll not call him to Police Station and Threat/Harass/Warn him if he tried to demand justice. As I saw in case of Tufail Mattoo's father. I really feel highly obliged to thank you for such a smoky farewell – Only the chosen sons get that kind of farewell. Though my eyes were closed and body motionless but I could feel the freshness of PAVA Shells and Smoke hand grenades. Yours Truly Loving / Caring But not Living Student Junaid Ahmad Akhoon.
  • Profile picture of Tasaduq Nakash MAZLOOM On: 2016-09-19 05:13:53
    The drama in Uri in Indian occupied Kashmir is as usual a clumsy attempt of colonial India to divert the world attention from it`s repression, killing of innocent children, men and women and use of brute force against the people of Indian occupied Jammu and Kashmir. One can logically argue as to why would India indulge in killing it`s own people, in this case army, one has to take a peek in India`s past behavior. Remember Chetti Singhpora of south Kashmir few years ago when Indian army massacred large number of Sikhs in order to impress upon a foreign dignitary as to how Pakistan was interfering in India`s affairs. Staging of fake militant encounters in Assam and Kashmir by Indian army has left it`s hands drenched with innocent blood in these places. ( please refer to books by K Bhattacharjee`s Blood On My Hands and M Khanna`s In A State Of Violent Peace. ) Moreover Indian state never cares about it`s poor people which supplies the lower cadre of army as is evident by it`s tolerance of one ever hour suicide rate of it`s farmers without even talking about it. India needs to Know that it cannot keep fooling the sensible human beings of the World all the time. Jammu and Kashmir will get free from the unholy and bloody clutches of India whether she likes it or not. IA.
  • Profile picture of Tasaduq Nakash Riya Sharma On: 2016-09-15 06:44:56
    Thanks for sharing useful information for us.I really enjoyed reading your blog, you have lots of great content
  • Profile picture of Tasaduq Nakash MAZLOOM On: 2016-09-12 14:22:18
    We all knew that Indian rouge occupation forces did not believe in humanly behavior but after the events in Kareemabad in district Pulwama of occupied Jammu and Kashmir it is clear that this rouge army is populated by subhuman creatures. The home minister of colonizer India has ordered his rouge subhuman army to control the legitimate struggle for freedom of the people of Jammu and Kashmir in a week, this speaks volumes about this individual, his government, his nation and his class of people. We however should not be surprised by this behavior as we have seen the people of this home minister`s nation consider a cow superior to a human being. Human evolution unfortunately has not been a part of Indian brahmin class which still behaves like hyenas. India needs to be reminded that people who are on truth and have lost the fear of death can not be defeated in their struggle for breaking the shackles of enslavement. For me, I ask mercy full Allah SWT hai kahaan rozay makafat aie Khudai darugir.
  • Profile picture of Tasaduq Nakash The one chant that India has been unable to gag; “Hum kya chahtey… azaadi” | Tera News On: 2016-07-28 18:34:27
    […] bid from across the Line of Control at the Machil Sector in North Kashmir’s Kupwara district by killing three ‘militants’ from Pakistan. However, it was subsequently established that the encounter had been staged and […]
  • Profile picture of Tasaduq Nakash Inamsa On: 2016-07-26 02:44:05
    India betrayed people of Kashmir: Wajahat Habibullah on Monday lamented that India failed to win the hearts of people of Kashmir and kept on repeating ‘blunders’ that always proved counterproductive. “I am deeply disappointed the way India has been handling the situation in Kashmir. Innocent civilians are being killed. We betrayed people of Kashmir from time to time and it is an fact now Kashmiri people have lost all sorts of trust and faith in India,” Wajahat Habibullah told Kashmir based news agency CNS and added that Kashmir is a big blot on the Indian political system.


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